Module 1-2 are Instructions on what to do.
And below in bold you will find two of my classmates discussion paragraph that needs to be responded to. Thank you.
Module 2: Discussion 1 and 2
Online discussions pose an opportunity for rich and meaningful student learning and interaction. Online discussions extend classroom learning by providing an asynchronous method of communication for the exchange of meaningful ideas that promote critical thinking and develop thoughtful reflective learning. All students are expected to participate in each weekly discussion. These forums will be grounded in durable or critical thinking utilizing case studies, problem/solution scenarios or other appropriate assignments.
This forum utilizes a question and answer format.  The discussion questions that each student should answer are posted below.  Students will reply to the question(s)/prompt first.  Do not upload a document as attachment.  Until you reply and post your answers to the question(s) you will not be able to see the other students responses.  After you have posted your initial answers other students postings, if there are any, will become available for you to read and comment on.
Instructions:  Choose TWO, each must be from a different chapter.  Include the prompt in your answer.
Chapter 3
What is meant by the blurring of the sectors? In what ways does this occur?
How did Dahl and Lindblom distinguish between agencies and enterprises?
How do Wamsley and Zald employ ownership and funding in making a distinction between public and private organizations?
What does Bozeman mean by publicness, and how does he employ this concept?
Chapter 4
Define the concepts of organizational environment and the environmental domain.
Describe the population ecology perspective on organization survival.
What does a resource dependency theorist say about organization survival?
Chapter 5
Name and describe two theories of the policy process.
What key authors are associated with literature on the policy process?
What key authors are associated with the role of interest groups and other main actors involved in the policy process?
What is a policy instrument, and how is it used?
Please post your initial response by 23:59 EST Thursday of Week 2, and comment on the posts of two classmates by 23:59 EST Sunday.
Submission Instructions:
Students will significantly increase their score by addressing the discussion prompt from an academic frame of reference.  The instructor is looking to see that students have completed the readings and may have even used supplemental research.  Citing the author from whom your ideas spring is necessary even in response posts.  Please include personal professional experience to supplement academic ideas when appropriate.  A great response is never just opinion.  Points will not be given for responses that only congratulate the discussant on his/her post.  For example, Great Post!  I really learned a lot from you. as the only response will receive very few points.  
Guerdie Joseph
Chapter 3: Question 1
What is meant by the blurring of the sectors? In what ways does this occur?
Blurring of the sectors is when there is an overlap and interrelation between public and private agencies. This happens when agencies perform both the roles of public and private agencies and these include, carrying out public service as required, while also pursuing the traditional economic interests (Rainey, Fernandez & Malatesta, 2021). Blurring of sectors also occurs when there is the need to save a company, where its failure would be devastating such as the loss of numerous jobs and the death of an economically significant agency.
Blurring of sectors also occurs when companies, partially public and partially private, are a hybrid meant to create increased service delivery. According to Rainey, Fernandez and Malatesta (2021) this blurring occurs when a government wants to increase access to a particular service hence enlisting the help of a private company, to provide a public service effectively and at an affordable cost. It is continually becoming a common practice in most countries, especially emerging economies.
Chapter 4: Question 2
Describe the population ecology perspective on organization survival.
According to the population ecology perspective, an organizations survival depends on the origin, development and the decline of its human population. Rainey, Fernandez and Malatesta (2021) note that human population makes up for the biological concepts that determine the survival of the organization. This includes the ability of the organization to take over certain ecological niches and optimize its resources for success and survival.
According to the population ecology perspective, organizations go through variation, selection and retention. Variation is the phenomenon where organizations experience new forms over time and these new forms and planned sometimes not planned. Selection is the process where biological concepts survive or prosper in the organization based on their ability to take over a niche and fill its capacity effectively (Rainey, Fernandez & Malatesta, 2021). In the population ecological perspective, retention serves to ensure organizational survival through the maintenance of certain organizational practices and internal processes.
Taylor Samuel

What is a policy instrument, and how is it used?

Policy instruments are the tools which can be used to overcome problems and achieve objectives. They include conventional transport methods such as new infrastructure, traffic management and pricing policies, but increasingly they also involve attitudinal changes and use of information technology.They include traditional fiscal instruments, including for example subsidies, taxes, charges and fiscal transfers. Additionally, instruments such as tradable pollution permits or tradable land development rights rely on the creation of new markets.

How did Dahl and Lindblom distinguish between agencies and enterprises?

Dahl and Lindblom described the complex continuum of types of organizations ranging from enterprises (organizations controlled primarily by markets) to agencies (public or government-owned organizations). There are also on the continuum various forms of agencies and enterprises, ranging from the most public to the most private of organizations.The Public-Private Continuum depends on 2 major elements: (1) Ownership (public or private) and (2) Funding (public or private). The Continuum also shows the amount of economic authority, public authority, and publicness (degree of political influence and subject to some level of external governmental control). Dahl and Lindblom construct their continuum of hybrid organizational forms based on differences in ownership. They used theoretical analysis of societal decision and allocation mechanism methodology to conclude that Agencies under government control have more intangible goals, less incentive for cost reduction, more dysfunctions of bureaucracy than do enterprises controlled by markets.
Rainey, H., Fernandez, S. & Malatesta, D. (2021). Understanding and Managing Public Organizations Sixth Edition. Jossey-Bass, A Wiley Brand.

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