Theology

Written by John, the Gospel of John is a bibliography of Jesus written latest and placed in the new testament. The book was not written by John the disciple of Jesus but the Baptist. The ideas in the book are not those on who was intimate with Jesus would write but appear to have originated from the end of the Christian era in the first century. At the time Christians were under attack from skeptics, Jews, Romans, and others who were against it. He aimed to give faith to Christians that despite the fight that is put against them, the word of God lives and forever will. He stood to prove that Jesus was the son of God and indeed is Christ and whoever believes in him shall have eternal life. This purpose is not any different from the other Synoptic Gospels but the nature which he uses to achieve it is different from the rest. The book is divided into two sections; the book of signs and the book of glory. The book of signs begins from chapter 1:19 to chapter 12:50. In this section, the Gospel has the characterization of seven ‘signs’ that showed the power of the Messiah. These include the turning of water into wine in 2:1-11, healing the official’s son in 4:46-54, healing the paralyzed in 5:1-5, feeding the hungry by multiplying fish and loaves in 9:1-41, and raising Lazarus from the dead in 11:1-44. John does not use the word ‘Miracles’ to refer to them but as signs that are meant to engender faith (John 20:30-31). Later in the book’s development, he portrays Jesus to be more than a vendor of signs but also the son of God. He uses words and their opposites to differentiate believers of Jesus from those who reject his divine presence like heavenly and earthly in 8:23-24, death and life in 5:24 and, life and dark in 3:19. John shy’s away from parables in the Gospel but instead uses interpretive tales. He uses literary devices to build his messages like irony and symbolism in the tales. Examples of the tales were the story of Nicodemus and the Samaritan woman by the well. In John 11:1-44, the book of signs ends by preparing the readers for the death and resurrection of Jesus with the death and resurrection of Lazarus. From John chapter 13:1 to chapter 20:31, the Gospel presents us with the Book of Glory. In the previous Book of the Gospel, John acquitted readers with the coming ‘hour’ of the Messiah (John 2:4, 7:30, 8:30). In the Book of Glory, he makes a declaration that the hour of Christ is neigh (John 13:1). Unlike the Book of Mark 15:25-39 which portrays the crucifixion of Jesus as suffering, John states that His death is an exaltation (John3:14, 8:28, 12:32,34) and a period to see His glory (John 12:16, 13:32, and 16:14). In this book, Jesus is seen preparing His disciples for His departure, which was to be followed by his prayer in chapters 13-16. The Messiah is seen enlightening the disciples of the world’s hostility and promises them the Paraclete that will continuously be with them in his absence. The author of the book used the term Paraclete to refer to Jesus’ form as the Holy Spirit. In the last section of the book, readers are presented with the trial, crucifixion, and resurrection of Christ. The last supper is not mentioned in the book and instead of his crucifixion being in Passover like the other Synoptic Gospels, it happens on the day before Passover (John 19:14). The book ends with the disciples and women discovering an empty tomb (John 20:1-10). The Gospel of John portrays the death of Jesus as the end of an era and his resurrection as the birth of a new era. Throughout the book, he repeatedly tells readers that the Messiah is to be believed, for humanity would be bestowed to the world through him. Another way of showing the power of Jesus was through his ascending to heaven. He told his disciples that he had risen to his heavenly father and that his work was done although he left them with the holy spirit as a guide in his absences. Therefore showing that God is omnipresent and omnificent.

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